The cover is astoundingly good. A quick scan through the science shelf and I found a handful of additional old Dover science books from the s and 60s with awesome covers. It turns out that the late s through the late s was a design heyday of sorts for Dover, with the creation of a whole trove of very modern covers.
The Pavlov cover is a gem of the set. The mint green and dark pink are odd color choices, yet they totally work. The subtle use of darkening the pink by overprinting on the green for the majority of the cover is also smart, leaving the scientific symbols to jump out of the illustration in a pink that has the illusion of being much brighter than it actually is. Content-wise the image is strong as well, with the tough and mean looking dog stripped down to muscle, and the black lines implying a logical system with which those muscles can be controlled. There is something almost comic about the design, with the small black and white image of Pasteur floating on a giant expanse of dark mustard—the color composed from orange and a nice light aqua-blue.
These two bursts of color are the only bright spots, and they function like a pair of hovering eyes, or alternatively a big bang moment, something exploding into being. The only visual elements are the groupings of white lines on black background, but they are more than enough to draw the eye in and across the page. The design quality and efficiency feels similar to other high-modern book design, such as Alvin Lustig or the original cover of Animal Farm by George Orwell. I have no idea what the black shapes are supposed to be, but I appreciate the bold decision to place them on a bright pink background.
Some of these covers remind me of the design used on the early editions of the New World Paperback series featured in these posts HERE. And similarly they are unattributed. But both publishers were based in New York City, and it seems not entirely impossible that they might have shared freelance designers! Lloyd Dixon. While some are simply striking patterns Bonola , others mix pattern and representation Andrews , some veer toward abstraction Abbott and Dickson , and some mix all these different elements together Weyl.
While many have no actual publishing date, they can usually be distinguished by their Smyth sewn binding and thick, raw, uncoated cover stock.
Neither design seems like a direct representation of the content, but in a way that makes them interesting provocations to potential readers to find out more. Both of the below covers evoke the workings of the brain. The Emerson cover ends up feeling more dynamic, if also more strange. Another set of more humanities-driven covers, the below are designs for books by cultural anthropologist Paul Radin. Both are striking. The cover on the left ages better, and was designed by Dover go-to guy J.
The covers are nice visual constellations constructed from numbers. Below these are a couple other covers built largely from numbers and letters as well. On to art-related books. Featured categories. Media Studies. Excavation Reports. Social Work. Political Science. Political Doctrines. Systems Of Government. Human Geography. Mass Communication. Gender Studies.
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Indeed, they cannot, as the principle of non-opposition merely establishes a constraint on successful psychological explanations. Appeals to this principle can show where some division must exist, but they do not by themselves characterize the parts so divided. It receives its fullest development in Books Eight and Nine, where Socrates uses his theory of the tripartite soul to explain a variety of psychological constitutions. In the most basic implementation of this strategy, Socrates distinguishes people ruled by reason, those ruled by spirit, and those ruled by appetite d—e, esp.
This simplistic division, it might be noted in passing, fixes the sides for an ongoing debate about whether it is best to be a philosopher, a politician, or an epicure see, e. But more important for our purposes here, this basic classification greatly illuminates the division of the soul. First, we learn about the organizing aims of each of the psychological parts Cooper , Kahn , Reeve , Moss In Book Four, reason is characterized by its ability to track what is good for each part and the soul as a whole e, c.
In Book Nine, reason is characterized by its desire for wisdom. These are not bifurcated aims. Socrates argues that people are not satisfied merely with what they take to be good for themselves but want what is in fact good for them d. So reason naturally pursues not just what it takes to be good for the whole soul but also the wisdom that ensures that it would get this right.
If wisdom is a fundamental constituent of virtue and virtue is a fundamental constituent of what is good for a human being, then wisdom turns out to be a fundamental constituent of what is good for a human being. So it should not be surprising that the part of the soul that tracks and pursues what is good for the whole soul also loves wisdom. Spirit, by contrast, tracks social preeminence and honor.
Finally, appetite seeks material satisfaction for bodily urges, and because money better than anything else provides this, people ruled by appetite often come to love money above all. The basic division of the world into philosophers, honor-lovers, and money-lovers also illuminates what Socrates means by talking of being ruled by one part of the soul. If one part dominates in you, then aims of that part are your aims.
If, for example, you are ruled by spirit, then your reason conceives of your good in terms of what is honorable. So there are in fact five kinds of pure psychological constitutions: aristocratically constituted persons those ruled by their rational attitudes , timocratically constituted persons those ruled by their spirited attitudes , oligarchically constituted persons ruled by necessary appetitive attitudes , democratically constituted persons ruled by unnecessary appetitive attitudes , and tyrannically constituted persons ruled by lawless appetitive attitudes.
The first three of these constitutions are characteristically ordered toward simple aims wisdom, honor, and money, respectively , but the last two are not so ordered, because there is no simple aim of the unnecessary appetites, be they lawful or lawless. In effect, the democratic and tyrannical souls treat desire-satisfaction itself and the pleasure associated with it as their end.
The democrat treats all desires and pleasures as equally valuable and restricts herself to lawful desires, but the tyrant embraces disordered, lawless desires and has a special passion for the apparently most intense, bodily pleasures cf. Scott , Johnstone , and Johnstone The second complication is that some people are not perfectly ruled by one part of the soul, but are subject to continuing conflicts between, say, attitudes in favor of doing what is honorable and appetitive attitudes in favor of pursuing a shameful tryst.
Socrates does not concentrate on these people, nor does he say how common they are. But he does acknowledge their existence c—d, cf.
Moreover, the occurrence of akrasia would seem to require their existence. For if I am perfectly ruled by my spirit, then I take my good to be what is honorable, and how could I be akratic? My spirit and my reason are in line, so there will be no overpowering of rational preferences about what is best by spirit.